Wednesday, November 11, 2009

Mastery Motivation In Children With Down syndrome

Mastery motivation in children with Down syndrome

Glenn S. , Dayus B. , Cunningham C. , and Horgan M.

Abstract - Mastery motivation refers to the intrinsic motivation children have to interact with their environments in order to learn about them. It appears early in life, and has been regarded by many researchers as a key motivator for development. It has also been suggested that young school age children with Down syndrome show lowered motivation to perform tasks. It is important to know if this low motivation is present from the start, or develops as a result of environmental experiences; studies of mastery motivation have been one way of investigating this issue.

However definitions of mastery motivation, and hence empirical studies, have varied. Thus this paper starts by revisiting the issues surrounding definition and measurement. There is general agreement on some issues: that mastery motivation is intrinsic, that it is manifest in different behaviours as the child develops, that there are individual differences in mastery behaviour, and that these are affected by environmental factors. There is also current agreement that it is essential to remove the confound of differing levels of developmental competence by using individualised measurement. However there is disagreement about which behaviours best index mastery motivation. Some empirical work with infants with Down syndrome is reviewed, and results from a recent longitudinal study on the development of mastery motivation are presented. The results concurred with most others in the recent literature, suggesting that low mastery motivation is not inevitable in infancy in Down syndrome. Infants with Down syndrome showed similar patterns of development as typically developing children, with slight delays. It is argued that longitudinal studies are needed to demonstrate such patterns of development.

As the children developed from 6 to 24 months mental age there was no evidence for decreasing levels of mastery motivation. Thus there was no support for the view that more failure experiences impact on levels of mastery motivation. In contrast caregivers did see their young children with Down syndrome as less object mastery oriented than did caregivers of typically developing children. The caregivers of children with Down syndrome were also significantly more directive in their interactions with their children, and there was some suggestion that individual differences in mastery behaviours were related to levels of mastery behaviours in their children. The final section speculates on reasons for these results, and makes suggestions for future work.

Source - Glenn S. , Dayus B. , Cunningham C. , and Horgan M. . (2001). Mastery motivation in children with Down syndrome Down Syndrome Research and Practice, 7(2), 52-59.

Wednesday, September 23, 2009

The Use of Biotechnology




The development of science and technology recently in the fields of communication, transportation, health, agriculture, etc has rapidly advanced. All of them aim to improve the welfare of mankind. Likewise in the field of biology, there is development with the term Biotechnology. The meaning of biotechnology used recently emerged in 1979 by E.F. Hutton when he got his patent for the term ‘biotechnology.’ Biotechnology always means as a branch of biology that learns the use of organism particularly microorganism and its product with the help of technology to serve goods and services for the human interests.

Biotechnology is the use of scientific principals by using live creature (microorganism) to bear product or service for the human interest. The sciences that are used in supporting biotechnology are: microbiology, biochemistry, molecular biology, genetics and physics, and also other science including economics. In biotechnology, microorganism and its parts are usually used to improve the additional value of a material. The other meaning of biotechnology is the interaction between biotechnology and technology that covers all forms of production by process of biological transformation. The term is used to explain a problem related to Genetic Engineering.

According to the Association of European Biotechnology, that the meaning of biotechnology is defined as the integrated use of biochemistry, microbiology, and chemical engineering that aims to reach the application of technology from the capacity of bred microbes and cells networks. The object of study and application of biotechnology concerns the issues from fermented food production to chemicals such as antibiotics, enzyme, ethanol, acetic acid, citric acid, Vitamin B12, and also the water waste processing, cell development, production of energy such as biogas, Nitrogen fixation, and reinvention of petrol.

The use of integrated biochemistry, microbiology and genetic engineering aims to reach the application of technology from the capacity of microbes and network culture cells.



A. Biotechnology is developed to improve the additional value of food

Biotechnology is developed to improve the additional value of food by making use the capacity of microorganism and its parts. Biotechnology is used in all fields, so that the object of study/research is very expansive, develops in stages according to the development and technology and also improves the needs of human being.

In broad outline, the development of biotechnology is divided into 4 stages as follows:

1. Biotechnology of food and beverage production.

The products known by the consumers (for example: fermented soybean [tempe], fermented cassava [tape], wine, Balinese brem, vinegar, sake, yogurt, cheese, bread, and fermented beverage from milk (yakult). This kind of biotechnology has expanded for thousands of years such as:

  1. In 6000 BC, yeast was used to make wine and beer.
  2. In 4000 BC, yeast was used to make bread that was expanded.
  3. In 1512, the important chemicals for human being such as acetone, butanes, and glycerol are obtained from bacteria.
  4. In 1926, Alexander Flamming invented antibiotics and it was produced in large scale in 1944.
  5. In 1926, it was found uranium incubation in tube with the help of microbes.

The research of microorganism with fermentation was initiated by Louis Pasteur so that he is called as the Founder of Biotechnology.

2. Biotechnology under a non-sterile condition (contaminated).

In the beginning, biotechnology is developed under the non-sterile condition which means the process of fermentation uses a fermentation opened to the environment so that it enables to be contaminated by other microorganism. The examples of non-sterile fermentation: process of making acetone, butane, acetate acid, ethanol, citric acid, lactate acid and glycerol, waste processing, and the making of solid compost from garbage.

3. Biotechnology under a sterile condition.

It means the process of fermentation uses a fermentation closed to the environment so that it doesn’t enable to be contaminated by any microorganism. Examples: product that is resulted in sterile condition, the making of penicillin, streptomycin, tetracycline, and other antibiotics, Vitamin B12, Cortisone, gibberellins, amino acid, and enzyme.

4. The application of new scientific results in biotechnology.

After doing research for many years, modern biotechnology is eventually developed, that uses biomolecular and control of process by applying genetic engineering.

Some of examples of modern biotechnology are:

a. Insulin hormone in large scale.

This hormone benefits for diabetes mellitus patient.

b. Interferon, i.e. a compound that is useful for healing certain disease caused by virus.

c. Row material for plastic industry by microbes (e.g. Alsaligenes eutripus and Aureum basidium pollutants).

d. Growth hormone (e.g. Bovin Somatropin Hormone), this hormone is used to improve the production of meat, and dairy milk.

e. Variety of plants those are resistant to drought and disease and also able to form fertilizer by theirselves.

f. Monoclonal Antibody (i.e. antibody that is yielded by cloning). This kind of antibody is useful to:

1. diagnose the disease of patient.

2. improve the body resistance toward cancer and other diseases.

g. The introduction of monoclonal antibody is the result of fusion (cell dissolving)

h. Protein resulted by genetic engineering, important to the healing of heart attack, and stroke.

i. Hepatitis vaccine as a result of genetic engineering.

j. The use of microbes in food industry, chemical industry, and waste processing (pollutant) industry.

k. The use of microbes to extract metal from industrial waste (e.g. Thiobaxillus ferroxidans bacteria)

B. Microorganism is able to yield and produce food

The more and more lacking in food resource for human motivates to find new food resources. Biotechnology gives chance for it, microorganism that is capable to multiply itself amazingly (e.g. bacteria, mushroom) makes human gives more attention to that microorganism.

Traditionally, microorganism is developed and used more as basic food of food changer through fermentation process.

1. The use of microbes for the production of protein.

Protein is a food material that is absolute for human. However, the success of Green Revolution has condemned the land that for long time yielding plants that produce protein (nut). To deal with the decrease of protein yielding, now it is developed a single cell protein (PSP : SCP = Single Cell Protein) by using microorganism. PSP is a food material with high level of protein coming from microbe. This microbe has a short enough period of generation changing and has protein level of 80%, far more then soybean or yeast.

Some of microorganisms that are effective for making are:

a. Metylophilus metylothropus, that is bred on methanol and tropina coming from khamir bred on petrol, or from residue of meat wrapper, residual paper of agriculture. SCP is commonly used as food for cattle (cow, sheep, and horse) so that those cattle produce milk and meat with high quality.

b. Fusarium mushroom, which is bred on KH medium from flour and potato. This kind of mushroom is able to produce microorganism that is SCP which is specially developed for human. This microprotein contains nutrient (food substance) with high value of nutrient, i.e. 45% of protein, 13% of fat, 42% of KH.

c. Alga Spirulina, yeast fungus (Saccaromyces cereviceae) and Candida Utilis fungus are microorganisms that can produce SCP. The SCP is not good enough for human body, because it has a high level of nucleate acid. In that case, if SCP is consumed by human, then it can cause a body upset (e.g. rheumatic).

2. The alteration of food using microorganism.

We don’t realize that most foods and beverages we often consume so far are the result of microorganism’s merit. Through fermentation done by microorganism, a certain food is altered into other food so that the flavor becomes more interesting or contains higher value of nutrient. The examples of that kind of food are:

* Cheese

Cheese is made from the result of fermentation of lactate acid bacteria (Lactobacillus bulgaris). And to increase the aroma and flavor, it is assisted by Pinicillium camemberti and Pinicillium roqueforti fungus. Types of cheese are as follows:

  1. Very hard cheese, e.g. Romano and Parmesan cheese.
  2. Hard cheese, e.g Cheddar and Swiss cheese. These kind of cheese is fermented by lactate acid bacteria, and under anaerobe condition so that it yields CO2 that will make holes on Swiss cheese during fermentation.
  3. Semi-soft cheese, e.g. blue cheese/roqueforti cheese. This cheese is a result of fermentation by Pinicillium Roqueforti fungus.
  4. Soft cheese, e.g. Camemberti cheese. This cheese is fermented by Pinicillium Camemberti fungus.

* Butter

Butter is made by mixing the cream (skim) so that it made fatty drops of butter separated from the butter milk. Butter milk is liquid of milk left after making butter. Today, butter milk is a liquid of milk (skim) which is cultivated with bacteria that is capable to form lactate acid. Such butter comes from the result of fermentation of lactobacillus bulgaris bacteria.

* Yogurt

Yogurt is made from sour cream, which is cultivated with lactate acid microorganism/bacteria. Yogurt is made from milk with low level of fat, in which a part of the water has been evaporated. To increase the acidity, the resulted thick milk is cultivated with Streptococcus thermophilus culture-bacteria, while to increase its flavor and aroma, it is cultivated with bacteria too, but the bacteria used here are Lactobasillus bulgaris.

3. Fermentation of Non-milk Food

Microorganism that helps to ferment non-milk food is yeast (Saccaromyces cereviseae). Yeast is mostly used to make bread, salted vegetable, alcoholic beverage (e.g. wine, sake, Balinese brem).

The making of bread, salted vegetable, and ketchup:

* In making bread, the batter of cake will be cultivated with yeast, the culture-spore will grow and ferment sugar in the batter so that it forms a CO2 bubbles. This fermentation under aerobe condition will motivate the production of CO2.

* In making salted cabbage (sauerkraut), and pickles, yeast is also used.

* In making ketchup, it uses Aspergillus wentii fungus. This fungus is able to ferment soybean long enough so that ketchup is yielded.

Some kind of microbes that are used to alter food into other form, for example:

  1. Rhizophus Oligophorus: to make tempe (fermented soybean) with soybean as the substrate/basic material.
  2. Neurospora sitophila: to make oncom, with peanut as the substrate.
  3. Saccaromyces cereviseae: to make tape (fermented cassava), with cassava or sticky rice as its substrate.
  4. Acetobacter xillinum: to make Nata de coco with coconut water as its substrate.

4. The making of alcohol and acetic acid

Almost all makings of alcoholic beverages (e.g. beer, ale, wine, Balinese brem) need the use of yeast (Saccaromyces cereviceae). Beer and ale are made from seeds butter (e.g. paddy) which are fermented with yeast into ethanol and CO2.

5. The use of microbe in industry

Besides its important role in food and beverage industry, actually microbe also gives a big expectation in non-food industry. In the field of health, pharmacy, energy, etc the role of microbe absolutely provides a bright expectation. Some of industries that uses microorganism are as follows:

a. Citric acid industry

Citric acid which usually gives a bitter taste on the flavor of food is a basic element in various kinds of orange. Citric acid is initially known as metabolism product of Aspergilus niger fungus, but apparently it can be synthesized chemically, however it costs expensive enough if compared with fermentation with Aspergillus niger fungus. The benefit of citric acid is to help the making of milk and the making of detergent.

b. Enzyme industry

Some kinds of enzyme which are important for food industry are:

1. Amylase

Amylase enzyme is mostly used in syrup production from cornmeal, glue (starch) production, and glucose production from flour. This enzyme is yielded through microbe, i.e. Aspergillus niger fungus.

2. Protease Enzyme

Protease is a protein-controlling enzyme. The benefit of protease is to soften meat, as an additional agent in detergent to remove spot of protein.

3. Lipase Enzyme

Lipase is an enzyme for hydrolyzing fat. The benefit of lipase is to increase the flavor (aroma) of milk in milk industry. Lipase enzyme is yielded by Aspergillus niger fungus.

4. Vitamin Industry

Vitamin is a nutrient that is absolutely needed by our body; however our body doesn’t make it by itself. To deal with the increasing need of vitamin, today it has been found microbes that yield vitamin such as:

a. Pseudomonas sp. bacteria, and Propionibacterium sp.: able to help the making of vitamin B12.

b. Ashbya gossipi: able to yield vitamin Riboflavin.

C. Microorganism as a medicine producer or the role of microbe in the field of health.

Several kinds of microorganism have been long time used by human, as medicine producer because they are capable in yielding antibiotics. Such antibiotics can inhibit the growth of other microorganism, particularly parasite microbe on animal, human, or vegetation/cultivated plants so that it can heal a lot of diseases caused by germ infection.

An antibiotic that is initially yielded by microorganism is Penicillin which is yielded by Pinicillium notanum and Pinicillium chrysogenum. Such antibiotic was initially found by Alexander Flemming in 1928. Microorganisms which are able to make antibiotic are fungus (fungi), class of Aspergillus, and Actinomycetes and also bacterium.

By the invention of new technology, new antibiotic is also yielded through process of fusion (cell dissolving) by activating gene which is initially inactive. The new antibiotic is Interferon, a substance resulted by process of fusion or some antivirus compound that can heal some kinds of cancers.

The benefits of Inferon are:

1. to fight against infection caused by virus.

2. to improve the system of body resistance.

3. to fight against melanoma (skin cancer).

4. to fight against leukemia.

5. to heal bone rheumatic.

D. Microorganism as eradicator of plant disease or the role of microorganism in the field of agriculture.

In the nature, there are a lot of bacteria that only live as parasite on typical organism, and do not disturb other organism. The nature of this organism can be used in biotechnology of plant disease eradication or known as Biological control. For example: bacteria resulted by genetic engineering, i.e. bacterium minus ice (-4°C). It is sprayed into the body of plant, so that the bacterium will compete with other bacterium which is not yet engineered (e.g. Pseudomonas sp. bacterium). Then, the engineered bacterium will remove and change the normal bacterium (non-engineered). Thus, the destruction of body part that causes the decrease of crops can be minimized. After being applied in the field, the spraying of bacterium minus ice apparently can increase the crops/harvest.

The way bacterium destructs plant is: under condition of cold environment, bacterium is a seed crystal. It is because the water surrounding plant is frozen forming ice, then it expands forming sharp crystal that can destroy cell of plant, and tears the cell membrane, kills cell or entire parts of plant/crop.

By genetic engineering, that is AND recombinant technology, it is developed bacterium that is decreased in ice-forming gene. By the disappearance of such gene, that engineered bacterium fails to form ice; even tough the surrounding temperature reaches -4°C. Other examples of microbes that have a role in eradicating the plant disease are as follows:

1. Baellovibrio bacteriovirus: producer of pesticide and plant disease eradicator medicine.

2. Baculovirus virus: to kill insect by spraying to the insect so that the insect will be infected by that virus and then contaminating its partner.

3. Agrobacterium tumefaeiens: is developed and helping in genetic engineering. This bacterium can eradicate plant disease.

E. Microorganism plays its role in dealing with pollution.

One of the impacts of explosion in the amount of population and the development of technology is the emergence of pollution on the environment. Until certain limits, actually our environment is still able to clean up by itself from all kind of pollutants. However, if the amount exceeds the capacity of environment in cleaning up, then orderliness of the human is needed to overcome.

In the framework of dealing with environmental pollution, the experts have tried to engineer microbe to obtain strain microbe which can help to overcome the environmental pollution. One of their efforts is the handling of waste by microorganism which is able to produce H2 (hydrogen).




From the development of science, we can do anything easily and in every field. One of them is the use of biotechnology in the field of biology.


There are still a lot of things that have not been included by the author in this paper. It is all because of the limited time and the limited knowledge of the author. Therefore, the author is expecting any suggestion from the readers in order to make perfect of this paper.

Keywords: biotechnology, foods alteration, fermentation, microorganism

Friday, July 31, 2009

Family Planning


Family planning is the planning of when to have children,[1] and the use of birth control[2][3] and other techniques to implement such plans. Other techniques commonly used include sexuality education,[3][4] prevention and management of sexually transmitted infections,[3] pre-conception counseling[3] and management, and infertility management.[2]

Family planning is sometimes used as a synonym for the use of birth control, though it often includes more. It is most usually applied to a female-male couple who wish to limit the number of children they have and/or to control the timing of pregnancy (also known as spacing children).

Family planning services are defined as "educational, comprehensive medical or social activities which enable individuals, including minors, to determine freely the number and spacing of their children and to select the means by which this may be achieved."[4]

Monday, July 20, 2009

What to Visit in Indonesia?


The Province of Nangro Aceh Darussalam
The capital of Nangro Aceh Darussalam is Banda Aceh.
In Banda Aceh, there are Syah Kuala University, Blang Bintang Airport, fertilizer factory of ASEAN in Lholseumawe, Lhonga cement factory, natural gas resource in Arun, Mount Leuser Wildlife Reserve to preserve protected species especially bear and tiger.
Tourist objects

The Province of North Sumatra
The capital of North Sumatra is Medan.
In Medan, there are University of North Sumatra, Polonia Airport, Belawan Seaport, Oil Refinery of Pangkalan Brandan, paper mill in Pematang Siantar, Sikundur Wildlife Reserve, South Langkat, West Langkat, international tourist object of Prapat, Lake Toba. The traditional house of Batak (Art house from North Sumatra). This event is documented in other place, for example Tanah Karo tourist destination, an IDR 25 money with one of its sides uses tongging. Natural painting created by the One God adds more variety of Indonesia, Lake Toba, a superior international tourist destination in Sumatra Island. With specialty of huge goldfish, various kinds of fruits, and cool air.

The Province of Riau
The capital of Riau is Pekan Baru.
In Pekan Baru, there are University of Riau, Simpang Tiga Airport, petroleum in Duri and Minas, tin mining in Bengkinang, Kurumutan Wildlife Reserve to preserve bear.

The Province of Jambi
The capital of Jambi is Jambi.
In Jambi, there are State University of Jambi, Sultan Toha Airport, and petroleum resource in Kenalisari, tin mining in Singkep and Bintan Island, Berbak Wildlife Reserve especially to preserve tiger. Rafflesia Arnoldi from Netherland first invented the flower, in accordance with its name, because it smells bad so it is called carcass flower. The huge Suwek, a bear, a superior animal of Bengkulu.

The Province of West Sumatra
The capital of West Sumatra is Padang.
In Padang, there are Andalas University, Tabing Airport, Teluk Bayur Seaport, Indarung cement factory, coal mining in Sawah Lunto.

The Province of Bengkulu
The capital of Bengkulu is Bengkulu.
In Bengkulu, there are University of Bengkulu, Padang Kemiling Airport, gold mining in Curup, Rafflesia nature preserve to preserve the rare plant of Rafflesia, the biggest flower in the world and also the huge Suwek.

The Province of South Sumatra
The capital of South Sumatra is Palembang.
In Palembang, there are Sriwijaya University, Sultan Badaruddin Airport, Sriwijaya Fertilizer (Pusri) and tire manufacture in Plaju and Sungai Garong, petroleum resource in Prabumulih and Pendopo. Coal is manufactured in Bukit Asam, while cement in Baturaja.

The Province of Lampung
The capital of Lampung is Bandar Lampung.
In Lampung, there are University of Lampung, Branti Airport, Bakauheni crossing port, Way Kambas Wildlife Reserve to preserve and to train elephants.

The Province of West Java
The capital of West Java is Bandung.
In Bandung, there are a state university that is Bandung Institute of Technology (ITB), Husein Sastranegara Airport, National Aircraft Industry (IPTN), gold mining of Cikotok, manganese mining in Karang Tunggal, earth heat resource in Kamayang and Bogas.

The Special Capital District of Jakarta
Jakarta is the capital of Indonesian Republic.
In Jakarta, there are University of Indonesia, Sukarno-Hatta Airport and Halim Perdana Kusuma Airport, Tanjung Priok Seaport, Legislative Assembly (DPR)/People Consultative Council (MPR), the president’s residence, car assembly plant, textile industry, National Park (TMII), Ancol, Ragunan Zoo.

The Province of Central Java
- In Semarang, there are Diponegoro University, Ahmad Yani Airport, Tanjung Emas Seaport.
- In Solo, there are Sebelas Maret University, Adi Sumarmo Airport, Kasunanan Palace and Pura Mangkunegara.
- In Purwokerto, there is Jendral Soedirman University.
- In Cilacap, there are iron sand mine, Nusantara cement factory, and Tanjung Laut Seaport.
- In Slawi, there are tea manufactures, paper mill in Blabak, Cigarette Factory of Kudus.
- Jepara, is a center of wood carving industry and furniture.
- In Magelang, there are an education centre of National Armed Forces and Borobudur Temple.
- Karang Bolong in Kebumen, is a swallow’s nest producer.
- The scenery around Telaga Dieng (Lake Dieng) and Sikidang Crater from various sides. A tourist object in Central Java, with various mushrooms as its mainstay.

a. Borobudur Temple, a 10 story building from Prehistoric Age with nuance of Buddha. Inside the temple, there are statues of God as a form of the died king. Borobudur is a wonder of the world in Indonesia.
1. Borobudur the wonder of the world
2. Borobudur as a form of acculturation
b. The relief of boat means: by boat with outriggers, Indonesian has been able to cruise over seas since the early age (825 A.D.).
c. Borobudur = Bhumi Sembhara = Bhumi Sembhara Budha.
The statue of Buddha. Stupa of Borobudur Temple

The Province of Yogyakarta

Yogya Kembali Monument building
A three-story building to maintain historical objects of the fight for defending the independence of Indonesia, diorama of the Dutch troops’ attacking to Maguwo. Located in Sariharjo, kecamatan Ngaglik, the regency of Sleman, Yogyakarta.

Prambanan Temple
Syiwa (Prambanan) Temple was established by Rakai Pikatan in the ninth century. The restoration was done by 1953. Brahma Temple (southernmost), Syiwa Temple (middle), Wisnu Temple (north)

Ramayana dance-drama is immortalized at Prambanan Temple on the full moon as a sacrifice to Rorojonggrang – Bandung Bondowoso. The Legend.
Relief on the wall of the temple describes Ramayana story.
Some of the relief merely functions as decoration.
Made by skilled men who mastered the highly valuable art and technique.

What is promotion?


1. The study of Promotion

Definition of Promotion
Promotion activity is conducted to increase the sale of product. Promotion represents one of important ways to conduct the emulation with the other company by not pursuanting to price.. Promotion is more stressed on informing what and how this product is (Yoeti, 1985: 50).

The word “promotion” gives various kinds of interpretation and language, the meaning of promotion is to inform, to persuade or to remind more specifically (Yoeti, 1985: 141). The promotion of tourism have a purpose of introducing and showing the tourist object with all its uniqueness and special characteristic, so it can improve the good sale of item or service (Winardi, 1972: 380). Promotion activity which has been done by Tanjung Tourist Countryside is held by cooperation with travel agents, promotion in various places, cooperation with Department of Tourism.

The important of promotion activity can be conducted with planning and executing promotion such as sales support. That is by releasing brochure, leaflets, booklets, folders, etc. The other activity is by public relations, through appropriate mass media to promote the existing promotion materials (Yoeti, 1985:53). In promotion activity, the excess of a product is shown, so that the consumer will be interested in this product.
According to Yoeti (1985: 141), to promote the product to the consumers, it uses a promotion appliance, including:
a. Advertising
Advertising or advertisement represents a right way to report a product result for consumer. The advantage of using this advertisement is that it can be known and be reached by many people through magazine, television, radio and cinema.
b. Sales Support
Sales support can be interpreted as an aid of the sale by giving all form of promotion material which is planned to give the public or travel trade which is showed as a medium. Sales support has two functions:
1) Sales support represents the communications channel between industrial tourist companies with service seller.
2) Sales support represents the effective assistive appliance for seller, like travel agent and other medium.
The types of sales support, for instance:
1) Brochure
Representing the publication printing, using by good paper, compiled draw lay-out, with all potency will be promoted.
2) Prospect
Representing the handout that sometimes is folded double and has more interesting design with all promoted potentials of the object.
3) Direct mail materials
Representing offering letter which is delivered to consumer candidate with brochure, prospect, folder, leaflet and other.
4) Folder
A promotion letter which can be folded, there are two and four folds. Every page contains the product offered to the market.
5) Leaflet
Leaflet is handout; it mentions many kinds of summarized information about promoted object.
6) Booklet
Form of booklet is like a guide-book. Its content is more complete than other promotion form.
7) Guide-book
Guide-book has broader characteristic than the kinds of other promotion appliance. Besides giving information about effort of tourism, it is also telling about tourist destination, using local language expression to make easy a communication.

c. Public Relation
Public relation is a division in a company or organization which has a purpose as a mouthpiece of company with the other partner who needs everything about company or organization. The duty of public relation is to make a link with other company or organization, to give information, to labor the existence of good impression with the society of company or organization (Yoeti, 1985: 147).

From the various kinds of promotion forms above, the writer takes a promotion from guide-book. This promotion is easy to spread to other place immediately, for example by propagating through travel agent or public area. One of the ways to promote the Tanjung Tourist Countryside that is by making of English guide-book. The making of English guide-book has a purpose to make it easier to get information about Tanjung Tourist Countryside, so it can improve the number the visitors.

2. The function of language in promotion activity
Language is very important in promotion activity. To give information for consumer, it needs a language. In the word of tourism, language should always be given a priority. Using English guide-book is so appropriate as a medium to introduce the object to tourist, in this case is to foreign tourist.

What is Tourism?


1. The Study of Tourism

a. Definition of Tourism

Tourism is a recreation activity done in outdoor place that takes time more than 24 hours (Marpaung, 2000 : 14).

Tourism is a temporary departure process of somebody or more to go to another place outside their residence (Gamal, 1997 : 04).

b. Definition of Tourist

Tourist is somebody or group who make a tourism journey (Gamal, 1997 : 04).

According to WTO (World Tourism Organization), tourist is everybody who resides in a state without reference of their origin – come to a place at the same state for the duration of more than 24 hours.

2. The Study of Special Interest Tourism

a. Definition of Special Interest Tourism

Special interest tourism is a tourism journey (tour), where the tourist visit to a place because they have a motivation or enthusiasm about the various objects or activities which can be met or done in location or in the location of tourist object (Special interest tourism, 1992).

In the decade of 1990s (WTO’s report), desire to get something new and unique in tourist activity was found. The tourist entangled their self in activity of education or science, emphasis and appreciation of esthetics value, requirement of their self development or personal and also desire to live and to have interaction exhaustively with the society ( Puspar-UGM : 1997).

b. Definition of Special Interest Tourist

The definition of special interest tourist is a tourist who is actively involved in their tourism activity, that is in the environment of physical or environment of community or social, cultural, experience, it has opportunity to have interaction with the object and the society here.

Special interest tourism generated by a shifted orientation of tourism and the motivation of people to do tourism journey, many tourists want to exploit their vacation time as their active involvement.

New values seeking and new form of journey are showed by the friction of tourism orientation with the development of new products which are recognized as the active vacation and special interest tourism (Danang parikesit, Dr., Msc, 1997). The product of tourism packed in special interest tourism is marketed to penetrate the market of special interest tourism. The organizer of tourism product has facilitated interested person or person who is interested in special hobby or enthusiasm.

What is UPGK?


UPGK (Usaha Peningkatan Gizi Keluarga) is a program of improvement on family nutrient in Indonesia which is held in POSYANDU (post of combined services)

The meaning of UPGK
UPGK is an effort of family to improve the nutrient for all family members.

A. Family nutrient improvement
  1. Every child under five’s body weight increases every year
  2. The number of KEP sufferer decreases or not exist
  3. The number of pregnant women with blood deficiency decreases
  4. The number of cretinous baby decreases
  5. The sufferer of vitamin A deficiency (KVA) decreases
  6. Fertile woman (WUS) who lack of chronic energy (KEK) decreases

B. Behaviors which support nutrient improvement
  • Pregnant woman regularly checks
  • Pregnant woman eats more portion, minimum 4 plates
  • TT Injection
  • Fertile couple participates in KB (Family Planning)
  • The use of iodized salt
  • Exclusive mother’s milk for 6 months
  • Giving oralit to the sufferer of diarrhea
  • Giving vitamin A to child under five and mother in parturition
  • Immunization towards baby, prospective bride-bridegroom, primary school student, and pregnant mother
  • Weighing children regularly every month

C. Participation and even distribution in activities
The activities extend by, from, and for the public.

TARGET : WUS, pregnant woman, breast-feeding mother, baby, child under five, and advanced age
ACTIVITY : Nutrient service at posyandu
Making use of yard

The implementer of UPGK is KADER (cadre)


Posyandu (post of combined services) is a center of public activities where UPGK programs are held, includes the following 5 programs:
  • KB
  • KIA
  • Nutrient
  • Immunization
  • Diarrhea
Target : pregnant mother, breast-feeding mother, baby, child under five, WUS, and advanced age

The implementation is using a system of 5 tables:
I. Registration
II. Weighing
III. Recording
IV. Service and Illumination
V. Service by interrelated official: consultation, treatment

Program of activity development at posyandu:
  1. The dental health effort of rural society (UKGMD)
  2. Supporting Group of KIA (KP-KIA), PP-ASI
  3. Combined Service (Yandu) of advanced age
  4. TOGA
  5. PJB (Occasionally monitoring of mosquito larva)
  6. Oralit Corner, ASI (mother’s milk) Corner
  7. PHBS
  8. Health funds
  9. BKB, BKL, BKR
  10. UPPKS


Posyandu of Advanced Age: an activity place for the advanced age in maintaining health and improving welfare and making efficient use of advanced age.


Section: Health
Pangrukti loyo (funeral)
Etc, adjusted with the local condition and capability

  • Pre-senile age of 45 – 51
  • Age of 60 – 64
  • High-risk age of > 70 or 60 who has health problem

a. REGISTER and other administration book
b. KMS and status card
c. Scales and body tall gauge
d. Tension gauge and stethoscope
e. Place

a. Registration
b. Body weight and tall measurement to determine the body mass index (IMT)
c. Sport
d. Illumination
e. Laboratory examination
f. And other activity adjusted with local condition

1. Indicator of coverage : K/S
2. Indicator of participation : D/S
3. Indicator of nutrient progra : H/D
4. Indicator of fitness : D/S
5. Indicator of health : T/D or P/D

1. The number of all advanced age : S
2. The number of advanced age with KMS : K
3. The number of advanced age who come to posyandu : D
4. The number of green IMT : H
5. The number of advanced age with normal tension : T
6. The number of advanced age who’s active in sport/gym : O
7. The number of advanced age with disease risk : P


TABLE I Registration
Books: KMS, control card
TABLE II Weighing and body tall measurement
Tension measurement
TABLE III Recording (KMS and IMT)
TABLE IV Vitamin/medicine service
PMT service
TABLE V Cross-sector
Laboratory service
Health consultation and examination service
Service of Medicine



Attendant list book and Control Card.............LILA Measurement

Carrying out of weighing.............Measure body weight and tall

Filling in the control card filling in the KMS and IMT determination........ Filling in the KMS
Body Weigh Interpretation (standard KMS) .........Filling in the immunization

TABLE IV SERVICE AND ILLUMINATION......... TABLE IV SERVICE AND ........................................................ILLUMINATION
Nutrition giving (Vit. A, Fe) and Vitamin service, PMT, Illumination
PMT.........................................................Vitamin Service, Illumination

Health Consultation and Examination
Service of Medicine


The movement of accelerating the decrease of death rate of bearing mother and pregnant mother which is held together with the government and society.

Kecamatan sayang ibu (Sub-district loves mother) is kecamatan which operates the GSI activity.

III. TARGET OF ACTIVITY: pregnant mother, bearing mother and children

Identification of pregnant mother by health staff
Pregnant mother with risk by kader (cadre)
Recording and data collecting
  • Minimum 4 times examination at health service place
  • Consumption of tablet to increase blood every day
  • Advice to bear at health service place
The existence of BACKGROUND
  1. Late to recognize the danger
  2. Late to arrive at referral facility
  3. Late to accept help at referral facility
The need of preventive efforts
1. Funds collecting
Tabulin : a cut of arisan
Saving money from rest of expense
2. Blood donor registration --- preparation of obstetrical emergency
3. Rural Ambulance: public/government vehicle to carry the bearing mother to the referral place of birth

  • KB (family planning)
  • Service of vitamin A for mother of parturition
  • Giving Fe until 40 days after bearing

1. Collecting data by approach toward cross-sector:
  • Camat
  • Social Division
  • PKK
2. Mapping
3. The approach toward cadre and people (identification of pregnant mother, high risk, risti factor)
4. Giving the direct health facility in order to facilitate the program implementation.